Your eyes are one of the most precious organs in your body, but unfortunately many serious eye conditions don't have any early warning signs. Regular eye examinations are critical for maintaining good eye health and detecting potential issues early. If you're concerned about your vision, we recommend seeking specialist care from a qualified eye doctor. Around the age of 40, before considering reading glasses, it is essential to undergo proper eye screening.
In addition to routine check-ups, eye problems or injuries can occur suddenly. If you experience severe eye pain, sudden loss of vision, or see "flashing lights," seek medical attention immediately by visiting your doctor or the nearest emergency department.
The eye, though small, plays a crucial role in our vision. This section provides a brief overview of the anatomy of the eye and how it works.
Light enters the eye through the pupil and is directed towards the lens with the help of other important structures in the eye such as the iris and cornea. The lens then bends the incoming light onto the retina, which is made up of millions of specialized cells known as rods and cones. These cells work together to convert the image into electrical energy and send it to the optic nerve, which transfers the information to the brain for processing.
The cornea is the clear front surface of the outer eye that functions as a window, focusing light into the eye.
The iris gives the eye its colour and contains the pupil, which opens or closes in response to light levels.
The lens is the internal, transparent focusing element of the eye, curved on both sides.
The conjunctiva is the thin lining of the inside of the eyelid and extends over the front of the white part of the eye, providing protection and lubrication.
The retina is the light-sensitive part of the back of the eye.
The optic nerve is a bundle of nerve fibres that serves as a communication cable between the eye and brain.
A cataract is a cloudy area in the lens of the eye, typically caused by aging (senile cataract). Other causes include congenital cataract, diabetic cataract, and traumatic cataract from an injury to the eye. Symptoms of cataract include blurred or cloudy vision, faded colours, and poor night vision.
Cataract can only be treated with surgery. The affected lens is removed and replaced with a permanent artificial lens. In some cases, a mild prescription spectacle may be needed after surgery. Regular eye exams are recommended for the elderly to detect cataract in the early stages.
Glaucoma is condition where optic nerve is damaged due to the increase pressure in the eye.
In our eye there's a fluid called aqueous humor which is continuously produced, there by maintaining a constant pressure in the eye. If there is an imbalance in the production and drainage of this fluid, the pressure in the eye rises, causing the condition Glaucoma (increased intraocular pressure)
In open angle glaucoma usually there're no symptoms and is detected during routine eye examinations (probably while checking for reading glasses). Sometimes in advanced cases it is detected later when certain vision loss has occurred.
In closed angle glaucoma there will be pain and redness in the eye with visual disturbances.
There's no permanent cure for glaucoma. Treatment only keeps the condition under control. Open angle glaucoma is effectively treated with medicines usually in the form of eye drops.
Some people may eventually need surgery if the medicine doesn't control it.
It is important to understand the condition and the treatment the doctor prescribed to prevent blindness, and control of the condition is greatly dependent on faithfully following the treatment instructions.
Squinting of the eyes explained simply means that the muscles that move the two eyes are not acting in a well-coordinated manner as is the case in eyes without squints. There are broadly two types of squints i.e. obvious squints and hidden squints which can be detected only by special tests. Squints are frequently seen in children but maybe seen in older people as well. In children squints can lead to reduced vision in one or both eyes and hence it is important that the child is seen as early as possible even if the child is only a few months old so that corrective steps can be taken to ensure that loss of sight is prevented. A sudden onset squint at whatever age may indicate serious brain or eye problems and must be shown to a doctor immediately.
In diabetic patients one of the serious complications is the development of eye disease which is referred to as diabetic retinopathy. Due to the presence of excessive amounts of sugar in the blood, changes occur in the inner layers of the eyes which may be similar to the changes occurring in the kidneys and other organs as well. The changes occurring in the minute blood vessels in the eyes can cause swelling and bleeding into the back of the eye with subsequent loss of sight. On first detection of diabetes it is important that the eyes too are checked at the same time so that the presence of any early blood vessel changes can be noted and recorded to facilitate follow up. If the diabetes has gone undetected for a while, the eyes may show changes that need urgent treatment to prevent rapid loss of sight. This usually involves a process of heat sealing of blood vessels using laser heat or the retinopathy may be so advanced as to require major surgery even at the time of the first examination.
This is the name given for the condition which causes the outermost coat of the eye (the conjunctiva) to become inflamed. This will cause the patient to feel grittiness, itching and watering from one or both eyes. The eye appears red and frequently but not always there is a sticky discharge as well. While this condition may settle on its own or with the use of an antibiotic it is important that the patient is seen by a doctor so that more dangerous conditions that give similar symptoms are not left untreated.
This refers to a common condition which results in inflamed lid margins. Patients frequently present with itchy eye lids which can be sore and red. There may also be dandruff like material at the roots of the eye lashes. The diagnosis is usually easily made by a doctor who will recommend lid hygiene and occasionally prescribe an ointment and artificial tears depending on the associated signs and symptoms.
The retina is the innermost layer of the eye and one of the most important structures concerned with sight. It resembles a fine sheet of transparent material and is usually well attached to the underlying structures of the eye. In some instances especially in short sighted persons or those who have undergone previous eye surgery or suffered eye injuries, this transparent sheet gets lifted off the underlying structures and the condition is referred to as a retinal detachment. A person with a detachment may experience flashing lights, or a sensation of floating particles within the eye a few days or weeks prior to the actual detachment. When a detachment actually occurs there may be a sensation of having a water bubble in the eye that is blocking sight or there may be a sudden dramatic reduction in sight described as a curtain falling in front of the eye. Treatment for the symptoms of flashes and floaters must be sought urgently and timely intervention may prevent the need for major surgery.
The cornea is the outermost transparent layer of the eye which resembles a clear glass window. An ulcer which refers to a wound, may form on the cornea even after trivial injury especially in diabetics and those wearing contact lenses or if the injury involves any contamination with plant leaves, dirt, stones etc which is frequently the case. A corneal ulcer causes redness, pain, watering and frequently a reduction in sight. There may be a visible white spot on the eye as the disease progresses. Since a corneal ulcer can progress very rapidly and even cause the eye to fill with pus and burst, treatment needs to be started urgently and the patient may even need to be admitted to the hospital for frequent instillation of drops and careful monitoring.
The uvea is the middle coat of the eye that includes the coloured part of the eye known as the iris. In uveitits it is this layer of the eye that gets inflamed and sticky and can vary from being a mild inflammation of the front of the eye (anterior uveitis) to being a severe sight threatening inflammation involving the entire middle coat up to the back of the eye (pan uveitis) . The symptoms may vary from mild redness, pain, watering and blurring of sight to severe pain and redness with a significant reduction of sight. In a large number of patients it is not possible to detect any underlying reason for the uveitis to occur but in a significant number of patients it may be a manifestation of an underlying disease involving the rest of the body. Uveitis has a tendency to recur even after being completely treated and especially if recurrences occur, tests need to be carried out to assess if there is an underlying disease of the rest of the body. Treatment includes frequent instillation of eye drops in the initial stages which may need to be continued for several months under close medical supervision.
A corneal transplant is an operation to remove parts of a damaged cornea and replace it with healthy
donor tissue. A corneal transplant is often referred to as keratoplasty or a corneal graft. There are different
types of corneal grafts as DALK/DSEK/PK
A cornea transplant is most often used to restore vision to a person with a damaged cornea. Or to relieve
pain or other symptoms associated with corneal diseases.
Corneal Transplant can be used to treat following conditions
Our hospital has five operating theatres located on two floors, including two Ultra Clean Modular theatres, dedicated to each specialty. Our Carl Zeiss microscopes are state-of-the-art and located within spacious sterile areas to ensure the highest level of patient care. Additionally, we have a fully equipped Central Sterilization Department located within the theatre area, capable of handling all sterilization needs, including a flash sterilizer enabling quick case turnover.
Issues like nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia can be corrected during refractive cataract surgery
Specialist procedures for the orbit, eye lids, and tear ducts, including: